Since Ancient Egyptian times, people have been using trance states and positive suggestion to help with healing. Franz Anton Mesmer paved the way for hypnosis to become more accepted and understood, with James Braid taking a more scientific approach, and Freud developing techniques with Charcot and Coué to use it in psychotherapy. Nowadays, hypnosis is used to help with a variety of issues, and is done working in a client-led, person centred approach with a professional, certified hypnotherapist in a range of clinical settings.
Below is a summary version of my CPHT hand-in looking at how therapeutic practice have evolved and developed and how these have tended to change with time.
Egyptian times: trance states used in sleep/dream temples
1780-1850: Franz Anton Mesmer used hypnotic trance states to unblock "animal magnetism".
James Braid used scientific approach to study hypnosis.
1885: Freud worked with Charcot to study "hysteria" and effects of hypnosis.
1901: Émile Coué used hypnotic induction by graduated waking suggestions.
1910: Coué abandoned classical hypnotism in favour of "conscious autosuggestion".
Major Similarities between Jung and Freud:
Differences between Jung and Freud:
Development of Hypnotherapy: Dave Elman was a stage-based hypnotist who developed rapid induction methods.
Clark Hull researched the power of hypnosis and wrote a book about it.
Milton H. Erickson was a pupil of Hull and used hypnosis to demonstrate the power of hypnotic trance to reduce the perception of pain and alter memories.
Hypnotherapy was used for the first time in many American army hospitals during the second world war to treat a wide variety of psychological battle trauma.
Viktor Frankl developed Logotherapy, which is based on the belief that the search for meaning amidst suffering can provide a solution to human suffering.
Carl Rogers further developed this approach with a more humanistic approach, while Gestalt therapy focused on growth-oriented models.
Milton Erickson combined various streams of models and concepts into a ‘communication approach’, which led to the development of ‘Solutions Focused Brief Therapy’ (SFBT).
SFBT focuses on the solution behaviours and encourages the client to consider what would be different if a miracle happened.
David Newton then combined the best aspects of all relevant therapeutic practices into a single model, where the client drives the change with the assistance of the therapy practitioner this became the Clifton Hypnotherapy Practice (CPHT).
The original article December 2021, used the following sources to develop the hand-in
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Goulding MAPHP, Michele. “What Is Solution-Focused Hypnotherapy? - an Article from a Member of the
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Joyce Monze, Luale. “Differences between Jung and Freud | Difference Between.” Http://Www.differencebetween.net/, www.differencebetween.net/science/psychology/differences-between-jung-and-freud/.
Marks, Sarah. “Psychotherapy in Europe.” History of the Human Sciences, vol. 31, no. 4, Oct. 2018, pp. 3–12, 10.1177/0952695118808411. Accessed 4 July 2021.
“Milton H. Erickson.” Wikipedia, 22 June 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_H._Erickson. Accessed 11 July 2021.
Peacock, Dr Sue. “Hypnosis through History.” Top Doctors, 14 Aug. 2018, www.topdoctors.co.uk/medical-articles/hypnosis-through-history.
Perera, Ayesh. “Viktor Frankl’s Logotherapy | Simply Psychology.” Www.simplypsychology.org, 26 June 2020, www.simplypsychology.org/logotherapy.html.
Robertson, Donald, and Mark Davis. “Dave Elman Hypnotic Induction Script.” The UK College of Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy - Hypnotherapy Training Courses, 2020, www.ukhypnosis.com/dave-elman-hypnotic-inductionscript/.
“The Dave Elman Hypnosis Institute - Hypnosis Books, Courses & Services.” Dave Elman Hypnosis Institute, elmanhypnosis.com/. Accessed 11 July 2021.
Tikkanen, Amy. “Franz Anton Mesmer | German Physician | Britannica.” Encyclopædia Britannica, 2019,
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Mar. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solution-focused_brief_therapy.
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Anna B. Sexton